A wide range of studies have shown that the T cell response is a
critical component of immune protection against SARS-CoV-2.
This should come as no surprise. Cellular immunity is essential for
the protection of multicellular organisms, and coronaviruses have
co-existed with Homo sapiens over long periods of time. Evidence
now suggests that SARS-CoV-2-specific T cell responses are essential for viral clearance, may prevent infection without seroconversion, provide robust memory, and mediate recognition of viral
variants. They are also elicited after vaccination, where they may
underpin outstanding protection against severe infection and death.
Antibody responses are clearly also highly effective in clinical protection, and their analysis has been facilitated by relative ease of
detection and assessment. Cellular responses remain more difficult to study, but this challenge is now being addressed during the
COVID-19 pandemic.

A nice read, that can be found here: https://www.nature.com/articles/s41590-021-01122-w

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